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Difference between blocking and deadlocking
 
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deadlock vs blocking sql server In this video we will discuss the difference between blocking and deadlocking. This is one of the common SQL Server interview question. Let us understand the difference with an example. SQL Script to create the tables and populate them with test data Create table TableA ( Id int identity primary key, Name nvarchar(50) ) Go Insert into TableA values ('Mark') Go Create table TableB ( Id int identity primary key, Name nvarchar(50) ) Go Insert into TableB values ('Mary') Go Blocking : Occurs if a transaction tries to acquire an incompatible lock on a resource that another transaction has already locked. The blocked transaction remains blocked until the blocking transaction releases the lock. Example : Open 2 instances of SQL Server Management studio. From the first window execute Transaction 1 code and from the second window execute Transaction 2 code. Notice that Transaction 2 is blocked by Transaction 1. Transaction 2 is allowed to move forward only when Transaction 1 completes. --Transaction 1 Begin Tran Update TableA set Name='Mark Transaction 1' where Id = 1 Waitfor Delay '00:00:10' Commit Transaction --Transaction 2 Begin Tran Update TableA set Name='Mark Transaction 2' where Id = 1 Commit Transaction Deadlock : Occurs when two or more transactions have a resource locked, and each transaction requests a lock on the resource that another transaction has already locked. Neither of the transactions here can move forward, as each one is waiting for the other to release the lock. So in this case, SQL Server intervenes and ends the deadlock by cancelling one of the transactions, so the other transaction can move forward. Example : Open 2 instances of SQL Server Management studio. From the first window execute Transaction 1 code and from the second window execute Transaction 2 code. Notice that there is a deadlock between Transaction 1 and Transaction 2. -- Transaction 1 Begin Tran Update TableA Set Name = 'Mark Transaction 1' where Id = 1 -- From Transaction 2 window execute the first update statement Update TableB Set Name = 'Mary Transaction 1' where Id = 1 -- From Transaction 2 window execute the second update statement Commit Transaction -- Transaction 2 Begin Tran Update TableB Set Name = 'Mark Transaction 2' where Id = 1 -- From Transaction 1 window execute the second update statement Update TableA Set Name = 'Mary Transaction 2' where Id = 1 -- After a few seconds notice that one of the transactions complete -- successfully while the other transaction is made the deadlock victim Commit Transaction Link for all dot net and sql server video tutorial playlists https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?sort=dd&view=1 Link for slides, code samples and text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/09/difference-between-blocking-and.html
Views: 66104 kudvenkat
02 Shared Lock & Exclusive Lock In oracle database table lock
 
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Purpose Use the LOCK TABLE statement to lock one or more tables, table partitions, or table subpartitions in a specified mode. This lock manually overrides automatic locking and permits or denies access to a table or view by other users for the duration of your operation. Some forms of locks can be placed on the same table at the same time. Other locks allow only one lock for a table. A locked table remains locked until you either commit your transaction or roll it back, either entirely or to a savepoint before you locked the table. A lock never prevents other users from querying the table. A query never places a lock on a table. Readers never block writers and writers never block readers. See Also: Oracle Database Concepts for a complete description of the interaction of lock modes COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT Prerequisites The table or view must be in your own schema or you must have the LOCK ANY TABLE system privilege, or you must have any object privilege on the table or view. ROW SHARE ROW SHARE permits concurrent access to the locked table but prohibits users from locking the entire table for exclusive access. ROW SHARE is synonymous with SHARE UPDATE, which is included for compatibility with earlier versions of Oracle Database. ROW EXCLUSIVE ROW EXCLUSIVE is the same as ROW SHARE, but it also prohibits locking in SHARE mode. ROW EXCLUSIVE locks are automatically obtained when updating, inserting, or deleting. SHARE UPDATE See ROW SHARE. SHARE SHARE permits concurrent queries but prohibits updates to the locked table. SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE is used to look at a whole table and to allow others to look at rows in the table but to prohibit others from locking the table in SHARE mode or from updating rows. EXCLUSIVE EXCLUSIVE permits queries on the locked table but prohibits any other activity on it. NOWAIT Specify NOWAIT if you want the database to return control to you immediately if the specified table, partition, or table subpartition is already locked by another user. In this case, the database returns a message indicating that the table, partition, or subpartition is already locked by another user. WAIT Use the WAIT clause to indicate that the LOCK TABLE statement should wait up to the specified number of seconds to acquire a DML lock. There is no limit on the value of integer. If you specify neither NOWAIT nor WAIT, then the database waits indefinitely until the table is available, locks it, and returns control to you. When the database is executing DDL statements concurrently with DML statements, a timeout or deadlock can sometimes result. The database detects such timeouts and deadlocks and returns an error.
Views: 690 OnLinE ReSoUrCe
01 Oracle database Table lock
 
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Purpose Use the LOCK TABLE statement to lock one or more tables, table partitions, or table subpartitions in a specified mode. This lock manually overrides automatic locking and permits or denies access to a table or view by other users for the duration of your operation. Some forms of locks can be placed on the same table at the same time. Other locks allow only one lock for a table. A locked table remains locked until you either commit your transaction or roll it back, either entirely or to a savepoint before you locked the table. A lock never prevents other users from querying the table. A query never places a lock on a table. Readers never block writers and writers never block readers. See Also: Oracle Database Concepts for a complete description of the interaction of lock modes COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT Prerequisites The table or view must be in your own schema or you must have the LOCK ANY TABLE system privilege, or you must have any object privilege on the table or view. ROW SHARE ROW SHARE permits concurrent access to the locked table but prohibits users from locking the entire table for exclusive access. ROW SHARE is synonymous with SHARE UPDATE, which is included for compatibility with earlier versions of Oracle Database. ROW EXCLUSIVE ROW EXCLUSIVE is the same as ROW SHARE, but it also prohibits locking in SHARE mode. ROW EXCLUSIVE locks are automatically obtained when updating, inserting, or deleting. SHARE UPDATE See ROW SHARE. SHARE SHARE permits concurrent queries but prohibits updates to the locked table. SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE is used to look at a whole table and to allow others to look at rows in the table but to prohibit others from locking the table in SHARE mode or from updating rows. EXCLUSIVE EXCLUSIVE permits queries on the locked table but prohibits any other activity on it. NOWAIT Specify NOWAIT if you want the database to return control to you immediately if the specified table, partition, or table subpartition is already locked by another user. In this case, the database returns a message indicating that the table, partition, or subpartition is already locked by another user. WAIT Use the WAIT clause to indicate that the LOCK TABLE statement should wait up to the specified number of seconds to acquire a DML lock. There is no limit on the value of integer. If you specify neither NOWAIT nor WAIT, then the database waits indefinitely until the table is available, locks it, and returns control to you. When the database is executing DDL statements concurrently with DML statements, a timeout or deadlock can sometimes result. The database detects such timeouts and deadlocks and returns an error.
Views: 599 OnLinE ReSoUrCe
Lock and Unlock table statistics in Oracle Database
 
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Lock and Unlock table statistics in Oracle Database
Understanding Locking in SQL Server - SQL Server Tutorial
 
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In this video you will understand what is locking in SQL Server? video gives brief overview Following: What is Resource types in locking of SQL Server? What is Lock Modes in SQL Server? It gives live view of looking at different type of lock modes as well as the resources types where the locks are placed. It describes in greater detail about RID, Key, Page, Extent, Table and DB Resource types in SQL Server Locking concept. It also explains Shared Locks, Update Lock, Exclusive Locks, Intent Lock, Schema Lock and Bulk Update locks in SQL Server. Blog post link for the video with script http://sqlage.blogspot.com/2015/04/understanding-locking-in-sql-server-sql.html Complete Step by Step List for DBA Tutorial Videos: http://sqlage.blogspot.com/search/label/SQL%20Sever%202014%20DBA%20Video%20Tutorial
Views: 52516 TechBrothersIT
Oracle username and password and Account unlocking
 
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all education purpose videos
Views: 260853 Chandra Shekhar Reddy
03 Dead Lock in oracle database
 
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DML Locks DML locks or data locks guarantee the integrity of data being accessed concurrently by multiple users. DML locks help to prevent damage caused by interference from simultaneous conflicting DML or DDL operations. By default, DML statements acquire both table-level locks and row-level locks. The reference for each type of lock or lock mode is the abbreviation used in the Locks Monitor from Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM). For example, OEM might display TM for any table lock within Oracle rather than show an indicator for the mode of table lock (RS or SRX). Row Locks (TX) Row-level locks serve a primary function to prevent multiple transactions from modifying the same row. Whenever a transaction needs to modify a row, a row lock is acquired by Oracle. There is no hard limit on the exact number of row locks held by a statement or transaction. Also, unlike other database platforms, Oracle will never escalate a lock from the row level to a coarser granular level. This row locking ability provides the DBA with the finest granular level of locking possible and, as such, provides the best possible data concurrency and performance for transactions. The mixing of multiple concurrency levels of control and row level locking means that users face contention for data only whenever the same rows are accessed at the same time. Furthermore, readers of data will never have to wait for writers of the same data rows. Writers of data are not required to wait for readers of these same data rows except in the case of when a SELECT... FOR UPDATE is used. Writers will only wait on other writers if they try to update the same rows at the same point in time. In a few special cases, readers of data may need to wait for writers of the same data. For example, concerning certain unique issues with pending transactions in distributed database environments with Oracle. Transactions will acquire exclusive row locks for individual rows that are using modified INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements and also for the SELECT with the FOR UPDATE clause. Modified rows are always locked in exclusive mode with Oracle so that other transactions do not modify the row until the transaction which holds the lock issues a commit or is rolled back. In the event that the Oracle database transaction does fail to complete successfully due to an instance failure, then Oracle database block level recovery will make a row available before the entire transaction is recovered. The Oracle database provides the mechanism by which row locks acquire automatically for the DML statements mentioned above. Whenever a transaction obtains row locks for a row, it also acquires a table lock for the corresponding table. Table locks prevent conflicts with DDL operations that would cause an override of data changes in the current transaction. Table Locks (TM) What are table locks in Oracle? Table locks perform concurrency control for simultaneous DDL operations so that a table is not dropped in the middle of a DML operation, for example. When Oracle issues a DDL or DML statement on a table, a table lock is then acquired. As a rule, table locks do not affect concurrency of DML operations. Locks can be acquired at both the table and sub-partition level with partitioned tables in Oracle. A transaction acquires a table lock when a table is modified in the following DML statements: INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT with the FOR UPDATE clause, and LOCK TABLE. These DML operations require table locks for two purposes: to reserve DML access to the table on behalf of a transaction and to prevent DDL operations that would conflict with the transaction. Any table lock prevents the acquisition of an exclusive DDL lock on the same table, and thereby prevents DDL operations that require such locks. For example, a table cannot be altered or dropped if an uncommitted transaction holds a table lock for it. A table lock can be held in any of several modes: row share (RS), row exclusive (RX), share (S), share row exclusive (SRX), and exclusive (X). The restrictiveness of a table lock's mode determines the modes in which other table locks on the same table can be obtained and held.
Views: 205 OnLinE ReSoUrCe
Oracle Tutorial-Creating, Expire, Lock, Unlock, Profile User and Create a form of User Creations
 
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TrainerBD.com Offers the most affordable (BDT. 15,000/-) Oracle Training in Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Learn Oracle, Be an Oracle Developer and/or Database Administrator. Click http://goo.gl/OYI9lF to learn Oracle. oracle 11g tutorial free download oracle sql tutorial oracle 10g tutorial oracle form builder tutorial oracle forms 10g tutorial oracle 10g tutorial for beginners oracle database 10g tutorial sql oracle oracle for beginners oracle 10g tutorial oracle tutorials for beginners oracle dba tutorial for beginners pdf oracle forms developer tutorial toad for oracle tutorial oracle fusion middleware tutorial oracle forms 6i tutorial oracle sql tutorial oracle 11g tutorial oracle tutorial pdf free download oracle dba tutorial for beginners oracle application express tutorial oracle tutorial for beginners oracle database tutorial oracle apex tutorial oracle sql tutorial sql tutorial oracle 11g tutorial oracle 10g tutorial oracle dba tutorial oracle tutorial for beginners Oracle Apex Tutorial Bangla Oracle Apex Tutorial Videos In Bangla Oracle Apex Training
Views: 96 TrainerBD .com
Merge Statement in Oracle SQL with Example (UPDATE/DELETE or INSERT)
 
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This video demonstrates how to write a Merge Statement in oracle sql, how it is useful in doing a conditional update or delete or both of them when the condition between the target table and source table is evaluated to true, and how we can insert the record into the target table when condition is evaluated to false. The video also shows the use of UPDATE, DELETE and INSERT with Merge, and also the various possible ways to use a Merge statement!!!
Views: 7140 Kishan Mashru
Oracle Database 12c Tutorial 4: How to install sample schemas / users in Oracle Database 12c
 
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Learn how to install sample schemas or users in oracle database 12c, In this tutorial you will also learn how to create a pluggable database in oracle database 12c by manish sharma RebellionRider ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog : http://bit.ly/how-to-install-sample-schema-users-hr-sh-in-oracle-12c Previous Tutorial ► Tut 61: How To Unlock HR schema in Oracle Database 12c http://youtu.be/F81gfUnznZY ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Help Me In Getting A Job◄◄◄ ►Help Me In Getting A Good Job By Connecting With Me on My LinkedIn and Endorsing My Skills. All My Contact Info is Down Below. You Can Also Refer Me To Your Company Thanks ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=kb4rc1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Amazon Wishlist: http://bit.ly/wishlist-amazon ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ You can also Email me at [email protected] Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 50557 Manish Sharma
Oracle SELECT FOR UPDATE /عربي
 
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you can visit my website maxvlearn.com
Views: 917 khaled alkhudari
SQLPLUS: LineSize & PageSize
 
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In this tutorial, you'll learn how to set linesize and pagesize . PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 14646 radhikaravikumar
Oracle User account is Locked/Expired & Backup of user account password
 
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This video will cover the trobleshooting steps for follwoing three topics 1) User account in Locked 2) User account is Locked and expired 3) Backup of user account/Reset password
Views: 363 ANKUSH THAVALI
Multiple Inserts
 
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Views: 24 Geeky Abhijeet
Oracle 11g Lock Monitoring with Read Committed Transaction Isolation Level Brief Explanation
 
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Oracle 11g memiliki 2 jenis transaction isolation level yaitu Read Committed dan Serializable. Secara default transaction isolation pada Oracle adalah Read Committed, yaitu ketika sebuah session melakukan Insert/Update/Delete pada sebuah data dilanjutkan dengan commit maka session lain akan secara otomatis membaca data yang sama. Terdapat Row Level Lock (TX) dan Table Level Lock (TM). Video ini memberikan contoh jelas tentang transaksi yang terjadi ketika proses locking terjadi.
Views: 153 Boby Siswanto
How to Create ROW LEVEL LOCK  2 Of 2
 
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Hi... Friend In this video we learn how to create ROW LEVEL LOCKING IN ORACLE DATABASE 11g
Views: 119 PGT POINT
How to use the auto commit feature in oracle database
 
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How to use the auto commit feature in oracle database ===================================================== show autocommit; set autocommit on; create table fruit(sno number); insert into fruit values(1); insert inot fruit values(2); how to rollback the uncommited transactions ========================================= rollback;
Views: 722 Praveen Biyyapu
Oracle Database Users / User Management (Simple)
 
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Create, Alter, Drop, Grant Rights, Default Tablespace, Temporary Tablespace, Quota Setup, View Users Information, Lock / Unlock user account select username,account_status,default_tablespace, temporary_tablespace,created from dba_users; create user myuser identified by myuser; alter user myuser quota unlimited on mytbs; alter user myuser quota 100m on mytbs; alter user temporary tablespace temp; alter user myuser default tablespace mytbs; alter user myuser accout unlock; alter user myuser account lock; alter user myuser password expire; alter user myuser identified by youuser; create user myuser identified by myuser default tablespace users temporary tablespace temp quota unlimited on users; grant create session, resource to myuser; grant create session, resource to myuser with grant option; drop user asif; drop user asif cascade;
Views: 40483 Abbasi Asif
How to lock objects in Redgate SQL Source Control
 
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Microsoft MVP Alessandro Alpi explains how to use the database object locking feature in Redgate SQL Source Control. SQL Source Control is an add-on for SSMS that lets you version control your database changes using your existing version control system. Find out more and try SQL Source Control for free http://www.red-gate.com/sql-source-control).
Views: 1096 Redgate Videos
how to unlock user in oracle database
 
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how to lock or unlock user in the data base oracle using script by sqlplus good luck
Views: 51 AbuBakr Alshujary
PART 3- oracle 10g form builder using text item property palette
 
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text item property palette-lowest allowed value, highest allowed value, initial value, hint,back ground and fore color
Views: 18381 Dr. Girija Narasimhan
Hints and Tips - Avoiding never ending locks - part 1
 
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Row locking is a critical component of ensuring the integrity of your data inside the database. But locks of extended duration can easily create system-wide problems in your applications. This quick tip gives you some ideas for handling locks better. ====================================================== Copyright © 2015 Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Other names may be registered trademarks of their respective owners. Oracle disclaims any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of this recording, demonstration, and/or written materials (the “Materials”). The Materials are provided “as is” without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
Views: 1036 Connor McDonald
What is High Water Mark(HVM) in oracle and how it effects the performance of queries?
 
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This video tutorial is to understand the concept of a High Water Mark or HVM of a oracle table, also it states the various changes in the HVM when we perform a insert, delete and Truncate operation on the table, and the video also informs why is the truncate operation more advisable and optimized then the delete operation.
Views: 2981 Kishan Mashru
Insert multiple records in one or more tables at once in Oracle
 
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SQL is a special purpose programming language designed for managing data in a relational database, , is used by a huge number of apps , organizations. Watch this Video to learn basics of SQL. This Video covers below topics about SQL. …………………..LIKE…….SUB………SHARE……….. What is Database , What is Database Table , What is Database Fields , Records , What is Oracle , What is RDBMS , how it is different from flat files , What is SQL Is SQL common for all RDBMS packages, prove it , Installing Oracle , CREATE, INSERT , SELECT comm,s , DELETE , UPDATE comm,s , SELECT comm, with WHERE condition , LIKE 'pattern' Operator , IN Operator , BETWEEN Operator , Pseudo Columns , Data Types , ORDER BY Clause , RENAME Table , DROP Table , Savepoint, Rollback , Commit , Create Tablespace, Create User, Create Role, Drop Role, Drop User, Drop Tablespace , Tablespace , Datafile , Alter Tablespace , Insert multiple records in one or more tables at once , Grant, Revoke , Grant Table View to other user , Referential Integrity , Column Alias , Table Alias , Equi Join , Non Equi Join , Self Join , Natural Join , Cross Join , Outer Join Left Outer Join, Right Outer Join , Full Outer Join , Anti Join , Column Format , Aggregate Functions , Character Functions , Number Functions , Conversion Functions To Char, To Date, NVL, Decode , Date Functions Add Months, Last Day, Months Between, Next Day, To Date, New Time , SQL Comm,s Type , SQL Buffer Comm,s , Ed or Edit Buffer Comm, , IN , NOT IN Operators , Not Null Constraint , Unique Constraint , Primary Key , Foreign Key Constraints , Check Constraint , Order By Clause , Group By Clause , Having Clause , Subquery or Inner Query or Nested Query , Union, Union All, Intersect , Minus Operators , Data Dictionaries TAB, ALL TABLES, ALL SEQUENCES, ALL VIEWS etc , What are SQL, PLSQL, TSQL , SQL Plus , ALTER TABLE ADD new column , DROP existing column , ALTER TABLE to Modify existing column , ALTER TABLE to ADD , DROP integrity constraints , Create, Alter , Drop Sequence , Create, Alter , Drop named constraints , Subquery , Set Union, Union All, Intersect, Minus Operators , Execute comm,s written in physical file , Getting started with SQL Plus Reports Part 1 , Getting started with SQL Plus Reports Part 2 , Getting started with SQL Plus Reports Part 3 , Views , Input Variables SQL Plus , Define Variables , Bind Variables , Introduction to PLSQL , IF ELSE construct in PLSQL Oracle , FOR LOOP Looping Comm, in PLSQL Oracle , LOOP Looping Comm, in PLSQL Oracle , WHILE Looping Comm, in PLSQL Oracle , PLSQL Table , Exception in PLSQL Oracle , Tax Calculator , Exception H,ling in PLSQL Oracle , Introduction to Cursor in PLSQL Oracle , Cursor Examples in PLSQL Oracle , UPDATE , DELETE using Cursor in PLSQL Oracle , Introduction to TRIGGER in PLSQL Oracle , AFTER INSERT fire UPDATE Comm, in Trigger , AFTER INSERT or UPDATE or DELETE Comm,s in Trigger , Statement Level Trigger in PLSQL Oracle.
Views: 44 Aap Koun
Table Locking ( MySQL ) - Tutorial
 
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Table locking is an existing query in mysql, where this query is used to lock the table at the time the user or admin wants to perform INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE. This query is run when a database resides on the server and there are few users who can access the database.So in order to avoid conflicting data during INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE then use Table Locking. - Introduction : 0:00 - Coding : 0:52
Views: 6062 Muhammad Ikram
Definer’s Rights and Invoker’s Rights in PL/SQL | Oracle PL/SQL Tutorial Videos | Mr.Vijay Kumar
 
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Definer’s Rights and Invoker’s Rights in PL/SQL by Mr. Vijay Kumar "Naresh IT is the Best Software Training Institute for Hadoop, Salesforce, AWS, DevOps, Sprak, Data Science, Python, Tableau, RPA ,Java, C#.NET, ASP.NET, Oracle, Testing Tools, Silver light, Linq, SQL Server, Selenium, Android, iPhone, C Language, C++, PHP and Digital Marketing in Hyderabad, Chennai and Vijayawada, India which provides online and classroom training classes" For Registration : https://goo.gl/r6kJbB Visit Our Websites: http://nareshit.in/ http://nareshit.com/ Call: India- 8179191999, USA- 404-232-9879 Email: [email protected] Our Online Training Features: 1. Training with Real-Time Experts 2. Industry Specific Scenario’s 3. Flexible Timings 4. Soft Copy of Material 5. Share Video's of each and every session. For Registration : https://goo.gl/r6kJbB For more updates on courses and tips follow us on: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NareshIT Twitter: https://twitter.com/nareshitech Google+: https://plus.google.com/NareshIT For Registration : https://goo.gl/r6kJbB Call: India- 8179191999, USA- 404-232-9879 Email: [email protected]
Views: 2138 Naresh i Technologies
Fix: Empty Pmag gen 3 doesn't catch/lock bolt
 
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AR platform is new to me, and I hope I don't upset anyone here because I am a noob when it comes to ARs. I recently assembled this Noveske rifle and bought 3 pmags M3 only to realize that most of the time the bolt wouldn't lock back on an empty mag. I then found a solution to the problem. Very simple to fix if you are having a similar problem. Of course not everyone has the same exact issue. When the bolt is closed, the bolt stop lever is prevented from raising by the bolt sitting above it. My brand new pmags had casting burrs on the inside of the body where the back of the follower, that also had a burr would snag. So, I assume that if you just emptied your mag, the follower is snagged on the burr, and the bolt stop is kept down by the bolt. The bolt comes back, the follower doesn't move up (because of the burrs) and doesn't raise the bolt stop - the bolt slams forward even though your mag is empty. Same thing happens when you insert an empty mag. The bolt stop was down, kept by the bolt above it. The bolt stop presses down on the follower as the empty mag is inserted. the follower catches the burr of the mag body, and doesn't come up. Bolt is pulled back, but the follower is not pushing up on the bolt stop, so the bolt slams forward when you release the charging handle. This is what I believe is happening and removing that pesky burr solves this issue, although i haven't fired this rifle yet and cannot know for sure. Let me know if I am completely wrong here.
Views: 36951 MosinVirus
Types of locks.mp4
 
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Views: 51 Kelsey Nash
PL/SQL: Without using Length function
 
06:22
In this tutorial, you'll learn how to get the length of a string PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 2011 radhikaravikumar
Oracle Performance Tuning - Loading Data - 04 Direct Path Load
 
16:28
Connect with me or follow me at https://www.linkedin.com/in/durga0gadiraju https://www.facebook.com/itversity https://github.com/dgadiraju https://www.youtube.com/c/TechnologyMentor https://twitter.com/itversity
Views: 1775 itversity
Oracle, Find Failed Queries
 
03:54
It is very difficult to find failed queries executed by Entity Framework. Use following plsql trigger to find quries CREATE TABLE QUERY_LOG ( ID NUMBER, ORA_ERR VARCHAR2(10), EXE_DATE DATE, QRY_LOG NCLOB) / CREATE SEQUENCE QUERY_LOG_ID NOCACHE / CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Failed_To_Extend_Temp AFTER SERVERERROR ON DATABASE DECLARE l_sql_text ora_name_list_t; l_n NUMBER; t1 NCLOB; BEGIN --IF (is_servererror(942) ) THEN l_n := ora_sql_txt(l_sql_text ); FOR I IN 1 .. l_n LOOP t1 := t1||l_sql_text(i); END LOOP; INSERT INTO QUERY_LOG (Id , Ora_Err , EXE_DATE , QRY_LOG) VALUES (QUERY_LOG_ID.Nextval, ora_server_error(1), Sysdate,t1 ); --END IF; END; /
Views: 45 Nivas Shelke
Oracle Vector Grill Install on Jeep Wrangler JK
 
03:39
The Vector Grill by Oracle Lighting gives JK owners the first full featured replacement grill that incorporates LED light emitters for Low Beam, High Beam, Turn Signals, and a Dynamic LED DRL. https://www.quadratec.com/p/oracle-lighting/vector-grill-jeep-wrangler-jk?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=video&utm_content=oracle-vector-install º|||||||º º|||||||º º|||||||º º|||||||º º|||||||º º|||||||º º|||||||º Quadratec is your source for everything Jeep® - Subscribe for the latest Jeep Wrangler news, off-road videos, how-to's and more! http://bit.ly/QuadratecSubscribe Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/Quadratec Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/Quadratec Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/Quadratec Google+: http://www.google.com/+Quadratec Quadratec is your source for Everything Jeep®! From our huge selection of aftermarket and OEM parts for every Jeep vehicle that just can't be beat, to all the latest news, photos, event coverage, Jeep build-ups and more! If you have questions or want to chat with one of our experts we're available by e-mail at [email protected], phone at 800-745-2348 or through our live chat service at http://www.Quadratec.com
Views: 23344 Quadratec
Connect Excel to Oracle Database
 
05:03
How to connect an Oracle Database to Microsoft Excel. https://www.elance.com/s/edtemb/
Views: 95243 i_marketing
110- Oracle SQL 12c: Manipulating Data- Merge Statement 1
 
06:04
تعلم اوراكل حتى الاحتراف EXAM 1Z0-061 EXAM 1Z0-071
Views: 784 khaled alkhudari
Understanding RID Lock Part 1 in sql server
 
05:01
RID LOcking Demo : CReate table Demo_lock(Id int,name varchar(1000)) select * from Demo_lock go insert into Demo_lock select 1,'Shrikant' go begin transaction insert into Demo_lock select 2,'Demo'
Views: 379 SqlIsEasy
Concorrencia Oracle
 
09:17
neste vídeo vemos como funciona a concorrência de transações no Oracle. Apresentamos conceitos como LOCK, BLOCK e DEADLOCK
Views: 357 Eduardo Morelli
Oracle Database 12c Tutorial  2: How To Unlock HR schema in Oracle Database 12c
 
07:18
Learn how to unlock HR user / Schema in Oracle Database 12c. Step by step procedure of unlocking the HR Schema in Oracle 12c By Manish Sharma a.k.a RebellionRider ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog : http://bit.ly/how-to-unlock-hr-user-in-oracle-database-12c Previous Tutorial ► Tut 60: How To Install 12c On Windows 7: http://youtu.be/T-rCbe1MMG4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Help Me In Getting A Job◄◄◄ ►Help Me In Getting A Good Job By Connecting With Me on My LinkedIn and Endorsing My Skills. All My Contact Info is Down Below. You Can Also Refer Me To Your Company Thanks ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=kb4rc1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Amazon Wishlist: http://bit.ly/wishlist-amazon ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ You can also Email me at [email protected] Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 77561 Manish Sharma
sql lock
 
01:00:44
Views: 69 man-han Tsai
PL/SQL: Cursors using FOR loop
 
05:10
In this tutorial, you'll learn h.ow to write a cursor using for loop and the advantage of it. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 16831 radhikaravikumar
Oracle Difference between Statement level and Row Level Trigger Session 3
 
02:54
Oracle SQL PLSQL and Unix Shell Scripting
Views: 651 Sridhar Raghavan
Inserting Records into Oracle Database in Telugu
 
13:49
#KOTHA_ABHISHEK http://sqlintelugu1.blogspot.com Inserting Records into Oracle Database in Telugu you can download background videos from http://videezy.com http://movietools.info
Views: 703 KOTHA ABHISHEK
61/125 Oracle PLSQL: Supplied  Packages  / DBMS_OUTPUT
 
16:00
تعلم اوراكل حتى الاحتراف Learn oracle Learn Oracle PLSQL EXAM 1Z0-144
Views: 487 khaled alkhudari
Student Attendance with Fingerprint Reader
 
08:44
Get the project at http://nevonprojects.com/student-attendance-with-fingerprint-reader/ This project allows user to get student attendance using fingerprint scanning along with admin attendance reports as desired.
Views: 179839 Nevon Projects
Java prog#6. How to link jcombobox with database in Netbeans  Java  and Sqlite (mysql)
 
08:29
------------------Online Courses to learn---------------------------- Java - https://bit.ly/2H6wqXk C++ - https://bit.ly/2q8VWl1 AngularJS - https://bit.ly/2qebsLu Python - https://bit.ly/2Eq0VSt C- https://bit.ly/2HfZ6L8 Android - https://bit.ly/2qaRSAS Linux - https://bit.ly/2IwOuqz AWS Certified Solutions Architect - https://bit.ly/2JrGoAF Modern React with Redux - https://bit.ly/2H6wDtA MySQL - https://bit.ly/2qcF63Z ----------------------Follow--------------------------------------------- My Website - http://www.codebind.com My Blog - https://goo.gl/Nd2pFn My Facebook Page - https://goo.gl/eLp2cQ Google+ - https://goo.gl/lvC5FX Twitter - https://twitter.com/ProgrammingKnow Pinterest - https://goo.gl/kCInUp Text Case Converter - https://goo.gl/pVpcwL -------------------------Stuff I use to make videos ------------------- Stuff I use to make videos Windows notebook – http://amzn.to/2zcXPyF Apple MacBook Pro – http://amzn.to/2BTJBZ7 Ubuntu notebook - https://amzn.to/2GE4giY Desktop - http://amzn.to/2zct252 Microphone – http://amzn.to/2zcYbW1 notebook mouse – http://amzn.to/2BVs4Q3 ------------------Facebook Links ---------------------------------------- http://fb.me/ProgrammingKnowledgeLearning/ http://fb.me/AndroidTutorialsForBeginners http://fb.me/Programmingknowledge http://fb.me/CppProgrammingLanguage http://fb.me/JavaTutorialsAndCode http://fb.me/SQLiteTutorial http://fb.me/UbuntuLinuxTutorials http://fb.me/EasyOnlineConverter Jave Netbeans and Sqlite (mysql) populate jcombobox In this video I have tried to show how to use jcombobox with database ComboBox for Java using NetBeans java netbeans and mysql populate combo box binding jComboBox to mysql database How to get the selected Text in JComboBox? populating combo box Fill JComboBox with MySQL data Netbeans Adding items to a jComboBox Populating Combo Box Selections With NetBeans - Java Fill JComboBox with MySQL data Java - JComboBox - Obtain Values How Use the Combo Box With Netbeans GUI Combo Box in Netbeans java - How do I populate jcombobox from a textfile? jComboBox demo Netbeans IDE Users - JCombo Box using Net Beans How To Add Jcombobox List From Database? link jcombobox with database Jcombobox with database help JAVA - How do I populate a jcombobox with information from a mySQL database? iit Learn java netbeans java tutorial netbeans
Views: 183611 ProgrammingKnowledge
PL/SQL: Mutating Triggers Part-1
 
06:24
In this tutorial, you'll learn... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 22639 radhikaravikumar