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The evaporating Mediterranean Sea | BBC
 
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Six million years ago the continents of Africa and Europe collided to close the Strait of Gibralter. Starved of water, the Mediterranean Sea evaporated to form a vast desert. The legacy of this vanished ocean? A million years' worth of salt deposited in mines half a kilimetre beneath the island of Sicily. Extraordinary footage taken from the ground-breaking BBC series Earth: The Power of the Planet. Visit http://www.bbcearth.com for all the latest animal news and wildlife videos and watch more high quality videos on the new BBC Earth YouTube channel here: http://www.youtube.com/bbcearth
Views: 425363 BBC Earth
Testing for salinity in the Mediterranean Sea
 
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Citizen science is fun to test for water salinity (how salty is the water)! We love that salinity can change drastically near shore, and that rates are naturally higher and lower in different regions, making it a great citizen science project. Do you want to test the ocean, sea or estuary near you? You can check out our testkits, specifically the ocean explorer, which includes this refractometer and other tests: https://store.waterrangers.ca/product/ocean-explorer-testkit/
Views: 36 Kat Kavanagh
Gibraltar Breach.mov
 
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Six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea nearly dried up during what is called the "Messinian Salinity Crisis". This movie shows a physics-based computer simulation of the breach of Gibraltar and the flood of the basin. A similar event 10,000 years ago, in the then populated Black Sea basin, may have been the source of the Noah's Arc narrative. For more tsunami and natural hazard information visit http://es.ucsc.edu/~ward.
Views: 1173439 ingomar200
Zanclean Flood of the Mediterranean in Sicily - computer animation
 
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Recreation of the evolution of the Messinian salinity crisis, between 6 and 5.3 milion years ago. Note that this is only one of the scenarios proposed by the scientific community studying this period. Time scale (million years per second) not to scale. See also what happened before this, here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bw-qf_zQMWs Video produced by the University of Malta under the supervision of: Aaron Micallef, D. Garcia-Castellanos, and A. Camerlenghi. Based on this original academic publication (open access): Micallef, A., A. Camerlenghi, D. Garcia-Castellanos, Cunarro Otero, Gutscher, Barreca, Spatola, Facchin, Geletti, Krastel, Gross & Urlaub, 2018. Evidence of the Zanclean megaflood in the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Scientific Reports, 8:1078 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-19446-3. [open access]
What Would Happen If We Drained the Mediterranean Sea?
 
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Learn about calculus, algebra, gravitational physics and more with a free trial and 20% off here at; https://brilliant.org/reallifelore/ Please Subscribe: http://bit.ly/2dB7VTO Music is by Brandon Maahs. Check out his website and music by clicking this link: http://www.brandonmaahs.com/audio-reel Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RealLifeLore/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/RealLifeLore1 Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/RealLifeLore/ Subreddit is moderated by Oliver Bourdouxhe Special thanks to my Patrons: Juan Rodriguez, Danny Clemens, Owen, Mary-Helen Burns, Jarrell Hawkins, Conor Dillon, Donna, Michael Aufiero, Mohammad Abu Hawash, MechanoidOrange and Greenlandia. Videos explaining things. Mostly over topics like history, geography, economics and science. We believe that the world is a wonderfully fascinating place, and you can find wonder anywhere you look. That is what our videos attempt to convey. Currently, we try our best to release one video every week. Bear with us :) Sources and further reading; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantropa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messinian_salinity_crisis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapse_rate#Dry_adiabatic_lapse_rate http://www.geologie.ens.fr/spiplabocnrs/IMG/gif/CarteEastmed.gif https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/5089/2010/acp-10-5089-2010.html
Views: 4380291 RealLifeLore
The Zanclean Megaflood Hypothesis
 
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A new study supports the scenario of a Mediterranean-wide catastrophic flood at the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC): The Zanclean Megaflood Hypothesis. Credits: Video produced by the University of Malta under the supervision of dr. Aaron Micallef “Evidence of the Zanclean megaflood in the eastern Mediterranean Basin” Aaron Micallef, Angelo Camerlenghi, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel Cunarro Otero, Marc-André Gutscher, Giovanni Barreca, Daniele Spatola, Lorenzo Facchin, Riccardo Geletti, Sebastian Krastel, Felix Gross & Morelia Urlaub Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19446-3
Views: 5978 SciNews
Geodyssey: The Messinian Salinity Crisis
 
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In this, the first episode of my new series "Geodyssey," I discuss the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea, which occurred several times between about five million and six million years ago.
Views: 18418 WildwoodClaire1
The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea
 
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Continued from https://youtu.be/Lw7GpyY2EGs An excerpt from Episode 14 of our Endless Ocean: Blue World Let's Play. http://www.kisamayatsu.com/letsplay/EO2/ https://twitter.com/Zorak
Views: 651558 ZorakGoesOn
Scientific Miracles of the Quran, 6 - The seas not mixing with each other
 
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"We were investigating of some researcher's judgments that put forth that there were some barriers that separated different masses of the seas from each other. As a result of various studies, we saw that the Mediterranean Sea has a peculiar natural level of salinity and density. At the same time, it has specific life forms. Then, we analyzed the mass of water in the Atlantic Ocean and saw that it was completely different than the Mediterranean Sea. However, these two seas, which merge at the strait of Gibraltar, were supposed to be equal or at least near to equal in terms of salinity, density and life forms that they had. However, these two seas have different structures even in places where they converge closely. Upon our investigations, we came across with an event that amazed us. or, there was a great water curtain at the merging point that did not allow these two seas to mix up. The same kind water barrier was founded by German scientists at Bab al-Mandab, where waters of Gulf of Aden and Red sea converge in 1962. In our later investigations, we witnessed the existence of the same kind of barrier in all merging points of seas that have different characteristics." For more detailed information, you can visit the websites below. www.questionsonislam.com www.windowsofislam.com www.basicsofbelief.com
Views: 38677 Windows of Islam
NASA Ocean Salinity Affecting Currents
 
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Sorry Jeff, blame YouTube for the freeze frame.
Views: 42342 GlobalClimateNews
11 months of water flow in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean (NASA)
 
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Visualization of the marine currents in the Mediterranean during 11 months. From model results constrained with in-situ data. White arrows for surface flow, darker arrows for deeper flow. Original title: Ocean Current Flows around the Mediterranean Sea for UNESCO Credits: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio Access to row video: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a003800/a003820/index.html NASA summary: This visualization shows ocean current flows in the Mediterranean Sea and Western Atlantic. The time period for this visualization is 16 Feb 2005 through 16 January 2006. For each second the passes in the visualization, about 2.75 days pass in the simulation. The colors of the flows represent their depths. The white flows are near the surface while deeper flows are more blue. This visualization was produced using model output from the joint MIT/JPL project: Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II or ECCO2.. ECCO2 uses the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) to synthesize satellite and in-situ data of the global ocean and sea-ice at resolutions that begin to resolve ocean eddies and other narrow current systems, which transport heat and carbon in the oceans. Animators: Greg Shirah (NASA/GSFC) (Lead) Horace Mitchell (NASA/GSFC) Scientists: Dimitris Menemenlis (NASA/JPL CalTech) Hong Zhang (UCLA) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Fresh Water Meets Sea Water – Boundary Explained
 
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This is the Fraser River Delta just in front of Vancouver BC Canada, this is where sea water meets fresh water. The river water from Fraser River, flowing into the ocean water of the Strait of Georgia. Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different bodies meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier creates a noticeable line, as each water body has its own temperature, salinity, and density. If you go on google earth and look up Fraser River or Sea Island which is an airport right at the water edge, you will see this boundary line stretching for miles. Thanks for watching ★★ Please CLICK THE NOTIFICATION BELL! ★★ Some subscribers aren't being shown our videos unless they click the notification bell next to the subscribe button. ___________________________________________________________________ CREDIT LINKS ► Maryan Pearson Youtube Channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCRcy6Po5q_VDeh6nfQWrb8w ► Maryan Pearson Video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_sMHM3enq38 ► Marlin Magazine Youtube Channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwE2V-O-O_3Wrp03GlDz8Ag ► Marlin Magazine Video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czd20tdEDUE ____________________________________________________________________ ► Wonder World Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/wonderworld.ytc.10 ► Wonder World Twitter - https://twitter.com/WonderWorld_YTC For business enquiries, content submission or copyright concerns or disputes, please contact me.
Views: 123474 Wonder World
Ocean Current Salinity Experiment
 
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OCEAN CURRENTS DENSITY DEMONSTRATION FOR EXPLICATION, TURN ON ANNOTATIONS IN SETTINGS - YOUTUBE
The Mediterranean sea
 
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The formation of the Mediterranean Sea, Chapter One - from Journey to the depths of the Mediterranean Sea Ivan Saliba 3D Shaun Arrigo Planetsea Productions www.planetsea.net Malta
Views: 128558 Planetsea
Ocean Current Flows around the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic
 
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NASA time lapse simulation showing sea surface currents around western Europe. The visualization covers 11 months, with each second in the video representing 2.75 days. The different colours represent current depths - white flows are nearest the surface, and darker colours running deeper. Credits: Visuals: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio Music: Kevin MacLeod, "Peace of Mind", Incompetech.com Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Views: 79110 EarthDirect
Sea Surface Salinity
 
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The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the ocean also varies from place to place, because evaporation varies based on the sea surface temperature and wind, rivers and rain storms inject fresh water into the ocean, and melting or freezing sea ice affects the salinity of polar waters.
Views: 889 NASA Video
Aquarius: One Year Observing the Salty Seas - Ocean Salinity & Climate
 
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Aquarius: One Year Observing the Salty Seas - Ocean Salinity & Climate From NASA: This video provides a global tour of sea surface salinity using measurements taken by NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red represents areas of high salinity, while blue represents areas of low salinity. Aquarius is a focused effort to measure sea surface salinity and will provide the global view of salinity variability needed for climate studies. The mission is a collaboration between NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales). - SUBSCRIBE to Bright Enlightenment http://www.youtube.com/BrightEnlightenment - JOIN the club: http://www.Facebook.com/BrightEnlightenment Video credit: NASA
Views: 7116 Bright Enlightenment
Messinian salinity crisis animation
 
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by Federica Brigida (Arts student) under the direction of Marina Bolado, David Gomez, and Daniel García-Castellanos (Project WikiArS https://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/WikiArS/en ). Based on previous art-work By Mantero, Garcia-Castellanos and Pau Bahí Español: La animación ilustra la crisis salina del Messiniense (Mediterráneo), que tuvo lugar en la época geológica del Mioceno, caracterizada por una acumulación masiva de sal en el fondo marino y que probablemente incluyó un periodo de desecación casi completa (minuto 00:49). Una posible causa de la clausura de la conexión con el Atlántico fue el desenganche y hundimiento de una placa tectónica subducida (minuto 00:13), en combinación con cambios en el nivel del mar (minuto 00:28). Tras la desconexión completa entre el Oceano Atlantico y el Mar Mediterráneo (minuto 00:31) hubo una rápida caída del nivel del Mediterráneo al cancelarse el aporte de agua que provenía del Atlántico. Los ríos que descargaban sus aguas al mar pasaron a recorrer el fondo marino produciendo profundas gargantas en sus propios deltas. La evaporación (minuto 00:35) produjo la deposición de grandes cantidades de sal en el fondo marino (minuto 00:39). Durante el periodo en el que presumiblemente el nivel del Mediterráneo estaba unos 1200-1500 metros bajo el actual, algunos mamíferos transitaron entre Europa y Africa en la zona del Estrecho de Gibraltar (minuto 00:44). Se cree que la crisis salina terminó con una inundación de enormes dimensiones debido a la entrada de aguas Atlánticas hace unos 5,33 millones de años, a través de un paso abierto en el actual Estrecho de Gibraltar (minuto 00:52). Al quedar el estrecho bajo el nivel del Atlántico, éste rebosó sobre el Mediterráneo y la erosión producida por esas aguas excavó una garganta que se fue haciendo más grande y por tanto retroalimentándose, acabando el proceso en un rellenado catastrófico que pudo durar tan sólo unos meses (minuto 01:10). Animación realizada por Federica Brigida con la supervisión de Marina Bolado Penagos (Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, de la Universidad de Cádiz) y Daniel Garcia-Castellanos. English: The animation shows the salinity crisis of Messiniense in the Mediterranean Sea, that took place in the Miocene geological era, characterized by the accumulation of masses of salt on its bottom and probably including a period of almost complete desiccation (00:49 minutes) A possible cause of the subsequent closure of the connection with the Atlantic is the removal of plaque collapsing (slab rollback) during a phenomenon of subduction. (0:13 minute) in combination to the change of sea level (minute 0:28). Following the complete closure between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea (0:31 minutes) the level of the Mediterranean Sea dropped rapidly just because there was no supply of water coming from the Atlantic. The rivers that flowed into the sea, began to run the seabed creating deep ruts and waterfalls in its delta. The evaporation (0:35 minutes) produced the storage of large amounts of salt on the sea bottom (0:39 minutes). Presumably, during the period in which the level of the Mediterranean Sea was 1500-1200 meters lower than today, some mammals passed through Africa and Europe, through the present Gibraltar Strait. (minute 0:44). It is believe that the crisis saline, ended with a flood of enormous dimensions of the Atlantic in the Mediterranean Sea 5.33 million years ago, through an passage opened in the current Straits of Gibraltar (minute 0:52). When the strait collapsed to the level of the sea, the Atlantic overflowed in the Mediterranean Sea and the water, the erosion due to the waters dug a groove getting bigger, finishing the filling process catastrophic, that lasted only few months. (minute 1:10).
Barrier between Sweet and Salty Waters | Miracles of the Quran | Subtitled
 
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Help Fund this Series: https://www.launchgood.com/MiraclesofQuran BARRIER BETWEEN SWEET AND SALT WATERS Consider the following Qur’aanic verses: “He has let free the two bodies Of flowing water, Meeting together: Between them is a Barrier Which they do not transgress.” [Al-Qur’aan 55:19-20] In the Arabic text the word barzakh means a barrier or a partition. This barrier is not a physical partition. The Arabic word maraja literally means ‘they both meet and mix with each other’. Early commentators of the Qur’aan were unable to explain the two opposite meanings for the two bodies of water, i.e. they meet and mix, and at the same time, there is a barrier between them. Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity and density. Oceanologists are now in a better position to explain this verse. There is a slanted unseen water barrier between the two seas through which water from one sea passes to the other. But when the water from one sea enters the other sea, it loses its distinctive characteristic and becomes homogenized with the other water. In a way this barrier serves as a transitional homogenizing area for the two waters. This scientific phenomenon mentioned in the Qur’aan was also confirmed by Dr. William Hay who is a well-known marine scientist and Professor of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado, U.S.A. The Qur’aan mentions this phenomenon also in the following verse: “And made a separating bar between the two bodies Of flowing water?” [Al-Qur’aan 27:61] This phenomenon occurs in several places, including the divider between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean at Gibralter. But when the Qur’aan speaks about the divider between fresh and salt water, it mentions the existence of “a forbidding partition” with the barrier. “It is He Who has Let free the two bodies Of flowing water: One palatable and sweet, And the other salty and bitter; Yet has He Made a barrier between them, And a partition that is forbidden To be passed.” [Al-Qur’aan 25:53] Modern science has discovered that in estuaries, where fresh (sweet) and saltwater meet, the situation is somewhat different from that found in places where two seas meet. It has been discovered that what distinguishes fresh water from salt water in estuaries is a “pycnocline zone with a marked density discontinuity separating the two layers.” This partition (zone of separation) has salinity different from both the fresh water and the salt water. This phenomenon occurs in several places, including Egypt, where the river Nile flows into the Mediterranean Sea. A series exploring 1000s of Miracles of Quran that recent advancements has been able to decipher so far. Each of them might be possible by sheer human luck, but to get these 1000s of Miracles correctly in a single book that was not edited after it produced is truly another proof of divinity of Quran. ► Subscribe: https://bit.ly/2P3PvJY ► Learn Arabic The Easiest Way: https://bit.ly/2KKZjpD ► Become Patron: https://www.patreon.com/DarulArqam ► Give one time donation: https://bit.ly/2MEtBQX ► Help us translate our videos into other languages: https://bit.ly/2osd8Re Watch FreeQuranEducation in other Languages: ►Azerbaijani: https://bit.ly/2MIfcmD ► Urdu/Hindi: https://bit.ly/2gD86NO ►Turkish: https://bit.ly/2i4etdp ►Indonesian: https://bit.ly/2y4GSLd ►Pushto: https://bit.ly/2NG2QId ►French: https://bit.ly/2PViXD7
Views: 9501 FreeQuranEducation
Dead sea amazing natural phenomenon - DeadSea salt cubes
 
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Cubes of salt washed up on the shore in the Deadsea (Israel Dead sea, Deadsea) Dead sea (from wikipedia): also called the Salt Sea, is a salt lake bordering Jordan to the east, and Palestine and Israel to the west. near Jerusalem. Its surface and shores are 427 metres (1,401 ft) below sea level, Earth's lowest elevation on land. The Dead Sea is 306 m (1,004 ft) deep, the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. With 34.2% salinity (in 2011), it is also one of the world's saltiest bodies of water, though Lake Vanda in Antarctica (35%), Lake Assal (Djibouti) (34.8%), Lagoon Garabogazköl in the Caspian Sea (up to 35%) and some hypersaline ponds and lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica (such as Don Juan Pond (44%)) have reported higher salinities. It is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean. This salinity makes for a harsh environment in which animals cannot flourish, hence its name. The Dead Sea is 50 kilometres (31 mi) long and 15 kilometres (9 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley, and its main tributary is the Jordan River. The Dead Sea has attracted visitors from around the Mediterranean basin for thousands of years. Biblically, it was a place of refuge for King David. It was one of the world's first health resorts (for Herod the Great), and it has been the supplier of a wide variety of products, from balms for Egyptian mummification to potash for fertilizers. People also use the salt and the minerals from the Dead Sea to create cosmetics and herbal sachets. The Dead Sea seawater has a density of 1.240 kg/L, which makes swimming similar to floating." dead seas near Jerusalem halite phenomenon (from wikipedia): "commonly known as rock salt, is the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates" - more in wikipedia view more interesting videos like : "15 Craziest Natural Phenomena on Earth" "Ice Balls forming along Lake Michigan near Glen Arbor" "2014 WHAT IS GOING ON? (Strange Weather Phenomenon)" "Strange Sky Phenomena Escalating Worldwide" "The Dead Sea in Jordan" "Earth's 10 Strangest Natural Phenomena" "25 Natural Phenomena You Have To See To Believe" more about dead sea and israel: "First Scientific Diving Expedition at the Dead Sea" "Israel - Small but Outstanding" "Israel ¡Seeing is Believing!" "Sunshine Across Israel"
Views: 1070718 jabulani400
Mediterranean closure during the Messinian salinity crisis. Tectonics+erosion oscillations
 
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Concept cartoon of the sea level oscillations possibly occurring in the Mediterranean during the inflow of Atlantic water during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The video depicts a cross section of the sill dividing both ocean domains at the seaway. The dashed lines are markers for the rock uplift. The blue arrow depicts flow velocity. The sill is uplifted at a constant uplift rate by tectonic motions. As the seaway becomes shallower, less water can flow through it, and the level of the Mediterranean lowers by evaporation. As the level of the Med decreases, the erosion power of the incoming waters rises. When the uplift rate is close to the critical value (the one overcoming erosion and triggering complete disconnection), the competition between both processes can leads to sea level oscillations, because the evaporation of the sea needs a few thousand years to take effect and thus has a delayed response relative to the inflow reduction. Daniel Garcia-Castellanos 2011-12 +info: https://sites.google.com/site/daniggcc/outreach-divulgacion
Salinity of the Red Sea - why it is so salty
 
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Red Sea is located between the arid areas, desert and semi-desert. The reasons for the active development of reef systems are deeper places and fast water circulation. Water mass of the Red Sea exchanges with the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden. These factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation of water in the northern part and the relatively hot water in the south of Red sea. The climate is the result of two distinct monsoon seasons: the northeast monsoon and the south-west monsoon. Monsoon winds occur because of varying degrees of warming the surface of the earth and the sea. Very high surface temperature along with salinity makes the Red Sea the warmest salt water in the world (after the Dead Sea). Average water surface temperature in summer is 26 C in the north and 30 in the south. The total average water temperature is 22 C. The sea is known by strong winds and unpredictable currents. The rainfall on the Red Sea and its coasts is extremely small, amounting to 0.06 meters per year. Generally, precipitation falls in the form of short showers often with thunderstorms and occasionally with dust storms. Rare rainfall and a lack of fresh water supply leads to a strong evaporation of 205 cm per year and high salinity of the water. The salinity of the Red Sea, it is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world because of strong evaporation. The salinity of about 36% in the southern part of the influence of the Gulf of Aden and reaches 41% in the northern part of the influence of the Suez Canal and strong evaporation. The average salinity is 40%. Its salinity is above the world average of around 4%. This is due to the following factors: high evaporation and little precipitation; lack of large rivers flowing; limited connection with the Indian Ocean, the salinity level of which is below.
Atlantic and Pacific oceans joining at a point in mid ocean but do not mix each other | Unbelievable
 
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On the temperature, salinity, and density differences between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans in the upper kilometre. Abstract The surface of the Pacific Ocean stands about 40 cm higher than the Atlantic Ocean with respect to the 1000-decibar surface, and the North Atlantic and North Pacific stand respectively about 14 and 17 cm higher than the South Atlantic and Pacific. The North Atlantic is warmest and saltiest, the South Atlantic is coldest and densest, and the North Pacific is least dense and least salty. The extreme values in temperature and salinity of the North Atlantic are probably related to the formation of the deep water there, which carries away from the upper layer the cold water of relatively low salinity. If this water spreads into the South Atlantic at depth and is replaced with warm saline surface water from the South Atlantic via the South Equatorial Current and the Gulf Stream, then the South Atlantic should be substantially cooler and less salty. The difference in density and sea level of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans may stem from the difference in latitude of the southern tips of America, Africa, and Australia, and the constriction of the west wind drift at Drake Strait. Only the densest surface waters of the Pacific pass through to the Atlantic, while lighter waters from lower latitudes of the South Atlantic pass eastward south of Africa. Further, the constriction of the flow by Drake Strait may result in a higher sea level on the Pacific side through the effect of Windstau (Montgomery, 1938). The density difference between the southern and northern oceans may be partly a consequence of the west wind drift around Antarctica. This is the greatest current of all oceans. Its flow is approximately geostrophically balanced and the surface slopes down to the south. The northern west wind drifts are not so strong, are at lower latitudes, and the high latitude flow is westward with slope upward to the north. These differences are not confined to the upper thousand metres. The average density difference between the Atlantic and the Pacific from the surface to the bottom is about 17 × 10−5 g/cm3. Referred to some deep surface such as 4000 decibars, the Pacific stands about 68 cm higher than the Atlantic.
Views: 849088 EE
Mediterranean Sea
 
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago.#leongormanhaircare #cleanocean
Floating in the Dead Sea ...You Can't Sink!
 
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The Dead Sea (Hebrew: יָם הַמֶּלַח, Yam ha-Melah, "Sea of Salt", also Hebrew: יָם הַמָּוֶת, Yam ha-Mavet, "The Sea of Death", and Arabic: البحر الميت‎‎ About this sound Al-Bahr al-Mayyit (help·info)), also called the Salt Sea, is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west. Its surface and shores are 429 metres (1,407 ft) below sea level, Earth's lowest elevation on land. The Dead Sea is 304 m (997 ft) deep, the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. With 34.2% salinity (in 2011), it is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean, and one of the world's saltiest bodies of water. This salinity makes for a harsh environment in which plants and animals cannot flourish, hence its name. The Dead Sea is 50 kilometers (31 mi) long and 15 kilometers (9 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley and its main tributary is the Jordan River. The Dead Sea water has a density of 1.24 kg/liter, which makes swimming similar to floating. Biblical period- Dwelling in caves near the Dead Sea is recorded in the Hebrew Bible as having taken place before the Israelites came to Canaan, and extensively at the time of King David. Just northwest of the Dead Sea is Jericho. Somewhere, perhaps on the southeastern shore, would be the cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis which were said to have been destroyed in the time of Abraham: Sodom and Gomorra (Genesis 18) and the three other "Cities of the Plain", Admah, Zeboim and Zoar (Deuteronomy 29:23). Zoar escaped destruction when Abraham's nephew Lot escaped to Zoar from Sodom (Genesis 19:21-22). Before the destruction, the Dead Sea was a valley full of natural tar pits, which was called the vale of Siddim. King David was said to have hidden from Saul at Ein Gedi nearby. In Ezekiel 47:8-9 there is a specific prophecy that the sea will ".. be healed and made fresh", becoming a normal lake capable of supporting marine life. A similar prophecy is stated in Zechariah 14:8, which says that "Living waters will go out from Jerusalem, half of them to the eastern sea (likely the Dead Sea) and half to the western sea (the Mediterranean)..." Greek and Roman period- Aristotle wrote about the remarkable waters. The Nabateans and others discovered the value of the globs of natural asphalt that constantly floated to the surface where they could be harvested with nets. The Egyptians were steady customers, as they used asphalt in the embalming process that created mummies. The Ancient Romans knew the Dead Sea as "Palus Asphaltites" (Asphalt Lake). King Herod the Great built or rebuilt several fortresses and palaces on the western bank of the Dead Sea. The most famous was Masada, where in 70 CE a small group of Jewish zealots fled after the fall of the destruction of the Second Temple. The zealots survived until 73 CE, when a siege by the X Legion ended in the deaths by suicide of its 960 inhabitants. Another historically important fortress was Machaerus (מכוור), on the eastern bank, where, according to Josephus, John the Baptist was imprisoned by Herod Antipas and died. Also in Roman times, some Essenes settled on the Dead Sea's western shore; Pliny the Elder identifies their location with the words, "on the west side of the Dead Sea, away from the coast ... [above] the town of Engeda" (Natural History, Bk 5.73); and it is therefore a hugely popular but contested hypothesis today, that same Essenes are identical with the settlers at Qumran and that "the Dead Sea Scrolls" discovered during the 20th century in the nearby caves had been their own library. Josephus identified the Dead Sea in geographic proximity to the ancient Biblical city of Sodom. However, he referred to the lake by its Greek name, Asphaltites. Various sects of Jews settled in caves overlooking the Dead Sea. The best known of these are the Essenes of Qumran, who left an extensive library known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The town of Ein Gedi, mentioned many times in the Mishna, produced persimmon for the temple's fragrance and for export, using a secret recipe. "Sodomite salt" was an essential mineral for the temple's holy incense, but was said to be dangerous for home use and could cause blindness. The Roman camps surrounding Masada were built by Jewish slaves receiving water from the towns around the lake. These towns had drinking water from the Ein Feshcha springs and other sweetwater springs in the vicinity. Byzantine period- Intimately connected with the Judean wilderness to its northwest and west, the Dead Sea was a place of escape and refuge. The remoteness of the region attracted Greek Orthodox monks since the Byzantine era. Their monasteries, such as Saint George in Wadi Kelt and Mar Saba in the Judean Desert, are places of pilgrimage.
Isolation and partial desiccation of the Mediterranean - the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis
 
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Isolation and partial desiccation of the Mediterranean - the Messinian Salinity Crisis, a plausible scenario. English: Artistic view of the geography of the Gibraltar Arc during the early stages of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (the period of restricted connection between the Mediterranean and the Altlantic). In this interpretation (based on Garcia-Castellanos & Villaseñor, 2011, Nature) a piece of dense lithosphere detached from Iberia at ~100 km depth sinking into the Earth's mantle. As a result, southern Iberia uplifted and the seaways that connected both seas emerged, This uplift had to compete with the erosion produced by the inflow of Atlantic water into the Med, allowing a long-lived inflow that explains the enormous amount of salt precipitated in the bottom of the Mediterranean. The lack of oceanic water supply and the arid climate of the Mediterranean sea both lead to a drawdown of its level. This video visualizes the interpretation of a research published in Nature in Dec.2011, but not all of its contents is part yet of a consensus among specialists. More info on the science of this video: https://sites.google.com/site/daniggcc/research-interests/messinian More outreach info in this blog: http://retosterricolas.blogspot.com/2011/12/messinian-salinity-crisis-33-causes-and.html Español: Geografía del Arco de Gibraltar al inicio de la Crisis Salina del Mesiniense (el periodo de incomunicación del Mediterráneo con el Océano Atlántico). Según la interpretación de Garcia-Castellanos y Villaseñor (2011, Nature), en el sur de la Peninsula Ibérica, a unos 100 km de profundidad, un pedazo de la litosfera se desprendió de la corteza terrestre y debido a su mayor densidad se hundió en el manto terrestre. Como resultado, el sur de Iberia se levantó y los estrechos que comunicaban ambos mares quedaron clausurados. Este levantamiento tuvo que competir con la erosión producida por la entrada de agua Atlántica, lo que explicaría la enorme cantidad de sal que se acumuló en el fondo del Mediterrráneo. Una vez clausurada esa entrada por completo, el clima árido del Mediterráneo produjo un descenso rápido de su nivel, al faltar el aporte de agua oceánica. El animador-texturizador-modelador Manolo Mantero, ha recreado en vídeo (mediante animación 3D) la geografía del Arco de Gibraltar y del Mediterráneo durante los eventos de la Crisis Salina del Mesiniense, hace unos 6 millones de años. Este video recrea una interpretación publicada en la revista científica Nature, pero no todo lo que muestra forma parte de momento de un consenso entre especialistas. +info: https://sites.google.com/site/daniggcc/research-interests/messinian
The Dead Sea is drying up at an alarming rate
 
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The Dead Sea has already lost more than one third of its surface area over the years. The water level is currently dropping by over 1 meter every year and its shoreline is expected to drop from 411 meters to 430 meters below sea level by 2020, according to the environmentalist group EcoPeace Middle East. Traditionally, the Jordan River is the Dead Sea’s inflow source. However, 50 years ago it was diverted to supply cities, reducing the water inflow level to the Dead Sea to just 5% of its original volume. The hot and dry climate of the region makes it difficult for the Dead Sea to restore itself. That added to the rapid loss of water has resulted in the increased salinity of the lake. The group also points out that the Dead Sea is threatened by cosmetic companies that extract mineral water from the region to make beauty products. Hotels and attractions built along the shoreline also release untreated sewage into the Dead Sea. Even though the Dead Sea does not have any wildlife in itself, the region around it is known for supporting several endangered species such as ibexes, leopards and the indigenous Dead Sea Sparrow. ----------------------------------------­­---------------------------------------­-­---------------- Next Animation Studio’s News Direct service provides daily, high-quality, informative 3D news animations that fill in for missing footage and help viewers understand breaking news stories or in-depth features on science, technology, and health. Sign up for a free trial of News Direct's news animations at http://newsdirect.nextanimation.com.tw/Reuters.aspx To subscribe to News Direct or for more info, please visit: http://newsdirect.nextanimation.com.tw/Index.aspx
Views: 279670 News Direct
Interesting Facts about The Mediterranean Sea || General Knowledge in English || GK Facts
 
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#GKFacts #GeneralKnowledge #CompetitiveExams Interesting Facts about The Mediterranean Sea || General Knowledge in English || GK Facts Topics 1. Brief on Mediterrenean Sea 2. Water bodies 3. The countries with coastlines 4. Topography 5. Vegetation 6. Civilization and Trade 7. Climate Change 8. Conclusion Target Audience : 1.One who is interested in knowing very important facts about 2.Mediterranean Sea. 3.Competitive Exams. 4.Students 5.General Knowledge. Playlists : Current Affairs : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvACp9rUsNk&list=PLhJlXtt17ABZsAZsFo7slv0emcs299jxp Daily GK Challenge : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNtcMoppsUg&list=PLhJlXtt17ABbQNlL5c3qz6sN573Ysce8t Top10: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yl-j1OL2Vow&list=PLhJlXtt17ABbpeAaJRvZBhH676umUt7O6
Views: 4734 Gwave Academy
Mediterranean sea Meaning
 
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Video shows what mediterranean sea means. In oceanography, a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.. Mediterranean sea Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say mediterranean sea. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 186 ADictionary
Oceanography - 1.1 - Temperature, salinity, density
 
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FIRST 9 VIDEOS IN SPANISH - THE REST IN ENGLISH Playlist: https://tinyurl.com/OceanographyPlaylist Unit 1: The Mediterranean - a Model of an Ocean (in SPANISH) Lesson: 1 - Temperature, salinity, density Notes: https://tinyurl.com/Oceanography-WordFilesAndPDFs NOTE: Much of the material is presented ONLY in the notes
Views: 62 Bob Trenwith
North Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface Salinity Anomaly Maps
 
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Sea surface salinity varies due to air-sea exchanges of freshwater, river runoff and ice melt, as well as due to transport of fresh and salty waters, and mixing with deeper waters. The animation shows the annual anomalies in sea surface salinity (g kg^-1) in the North Atlantic, varying from -0.1 g kg^-1 (blue) to +0.1 g kg^-1 (red). The animation reveals strong interannual and decadal variability for the ocean gyres, often with opposing patterns for different decades (such as 1950-1970 versus 1980-2000), as well as a recent increase in surface salinity for much of the North Atlantic for 2000 to 2010.
Views: 193 OceanClimateAtUoL
Ocean Acidification
 
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In this video Paul Andersen shows how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is causing a decrease in the pH of the oceans. The carbon dioxide combines with the water to create carbonic acid which dissociates into bicarbonate and carbonate anions. Decreased pH leads to lower metabolism and immune response in marine species. Increased bicarbonate makes it difficult to form shells and reefs of calcium carbonate. Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: CCoil. (2015). English: Space-filling model of part of the crystal structure of calcium carbonate, CaCO3. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calcium-carbonate-xtal-3D-SF.png Daviddarom. (1969). English: Coral reef with Pseudanthias squamipinnis, Gulf of Eilat Red Sea. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gulf_of_Eilat_(Red_Sea)_coral_reefs.jpg Dbc334. (2006). English: Molecule of water. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Water_molecule_3D.svg Fairbanks, P. by R. H. University of Alaska. (2004). English: A pelagic pteropod collected during one of the net tows. Species probably Limacina helicina. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LimacinaHelicinaNOAA.jpg Giesecke, R. (2010). English: Limacina rangii (d’Orbigny, 1834) (synonym: Limacina helicina, synonym: Limacina helicina antarctica) from the Lazarev Sea, Antarctic. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Limacina_antarctica.png Jynto, B. M. and. (2009). English: Ball and stick model of the Bicarbonate ion. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bicarbonate-ion-3D-balls.png Laboratory, N. E. V. (2011). English: In laboratory experiments, this pterapod shell dissolved over the course of 45 days in seawater adjusted to an ocean chemistry projected for the year 2100. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pterapod_shell_dissolved_in_seawater_adjusted_to_an_ocean_chemistry_projected_for_the_year_2100.jpg Meiyuchang, K. svg: U. work: (2010). Carbonate system of seawater. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carbonate_system_of_seawater.svg Mills, J. and B. (2010). Ball and stick model of the carbonic acid molecule. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carbonic-acid-3D-balls.png NASA/GISS, N. O. (2015). English: This map of the Earth shows surface temperature trends between 1950 and 2014. The key to this map is here. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_map_showing_surface_temperature_trends_between_1950_and_2014.png Plumbago. (2009). English: Estimated change in annual mean sea surface pH between the pre-industrial period (1700s) and the present day (1990s). Δ pH here is in standard pH units. Calculated from fields of dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) climatology and temperature and salinity from the World Ocean Atlas (2005) climatology using Richard Zeebe’s csys package. It is plotted here using a Mollweide projection (using MATLAB and the M_Map package). Note that the GLODAP climatology is missing data in certain oceanic provinces including the Arctic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Malay Archipelago. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WOA05_GLODAP_del_pH_AYool.png Wikipedia, P. at E. (2007). English: Another diagram of the pH scale. Own work. PD release. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PH_scale_2.png Zander, “Jon. (2007). Pectinidé (il s’agit de la valve inférieure d’un gros pectinidé, pour moi Pecten maximus, la coquille Saint-Jacques, mais je ne suis pas un spécialiste et en plus on voit pas l’autre valve donc....). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Unknown_Bivalve_Macro.JPG
Views: 68864 Bozeman Science
Messinian Salinity Crisis-Drying of Mediterr-Claire.flv
 
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Named after Messina, Sicily, where the great salt mines give a hint of the drying out of the Mediterranean 6 Ma (and many times before that). This funky video is actually quite serious and good science. Few people know that the Mediterranean dried out multiple times when the Straits of Gibraltar closed up. Huge salt (evaporite) deposits were left each time.
Views: 1895 wwiscombe
Some of the best beaches in Greece! 720p/HD
 
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Greece has more than 16,000 kilometers (9,320 miles) of coastline, 200,000 beaches, 6,000 islands (and islets). Greece's coastline is by far the longest coastline in the Mediterranean sea, and the tenth longest in the world. The deepest point in the Mediterranean Sea is called the "Calypso Deep", it is located in the Ionian Sea in Greece, and is 5,267 meters deep (17,280 feet). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The quality of coastal bathing waters in Greece is systematically monitored since 1988 (according to Directive 76/160/EEC), and since then Greece has been receiving excellent reports on it's bathing water sites, with more than 95% of them meeting the most stringent guide values (excellent quality). According to the 2012 European bathing water quality report of the European Environment Agency, Greece and Cyprus have the cleanest coastal bathing waters in Europe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Regardless of your location in Greece, a beach won't be far away. Beaches in Greece have a serene, peaceful atmosphere. Most beaches have shallow, calm, crystal clear waters that make them ideal for young children and families. Due to the country's peninsular shape, big waves do not usually reach the beaches, except those that are exposed to the open ocean, which are mostly preferred by windsurfers. Apart from the long wide sandy beaches, and those lined with pine (in the North), or palm (in Crete) trees and lush green grass in the north, there are many small rocky, pebbly inlets, perfect for snorkeling and scuba diving. There are also numerous remote beaches that are only accessible by boat, and other secluded naturalist beaches lining the coasts of Greece, where nudism is quite prevalent. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Conditions in various beach destinations in the world can differ greatly. During the tourist season, Tropical Weather (in contrast to Mediterranean Weather), can produce unpleasant atmospheric conditions like: Sudden storms, monsoons, floods, clouds, extreme humidity and precipitation, unpleasantly warm sea temperature, dangerous strong ocean rip currents that can pull swimmers away from the shore without them even noticing and huge waves that can cause sea water to lose its clarity and become foamy, murky and dirty. Moreover, due to vast presence of algae, low salinity/iodine levels, excessive bacterial and micro-organic activity (which can be highly pathogenic), the sea color in the Tropical Zones can obtain a repulsive, slimy green color. In contrast to the Tropics, Greek summer is always hot, calm, sunny, cloudless and dry and the Greek sea is blue, clear and a lot safer, not only health-wise but also due to the fact that encounters with dangerous/venomous sea creatures and organisms is extremely rare in Greece, as such species are not endemic to the Mediterranean region. (There is only one anecdotal tale of a fatal shark attack in the Greek islands, and that was reported nearly a century ago). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Video Info: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Music: 00:00 - 07:08 "Salt Tank - Sargasso Sea" (InternalRecords) 07:09 - 09:08 "Mikro - Eikones" (UndoRecords/ EMI /Warner) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pictures: Mainly from Flickr / Panoramio / Trekearth accounts. If you own any of the pictures presented in this video and want your name to be displayed in a video annotation box on the corresponding picture, please contact me and make sure you provide the link where your original picture is displayed! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Disclaimer: 1) I do not own any of the content presented in this video. 2) All content belongs to its rightful owners. 3) This video is strictly for research/reviewing purposes. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Thanks for watching.
Views: 1086221 John Doe
1 drop of Seawater - Zooplankton - Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea)
 
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1 drop of Seawater - Zooplankton - Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea)
NASA | Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity
 
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This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red represents areas of high salinity, while blue represents areas of low salinity. Aquarius is a focused effort to measure sea surface salinity and will provide the global view of salinity variability needed for climate studies. The mission is a collaboration between NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales). View the press release: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/aquarius/news/data-first-year.html This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a004000/a004046/ Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/iTunes/f0004_index.html Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NASA.GSFC Or find us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard
Views: 11698 NASA Goddard
Visit Spain’s Giant Geode on 2019. Largest Cave of Crystals in Europe!
 
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The Giant Geode of Pulpí in South Spain is a cave of crystals formed during the Messinian Salinity Crisis 6 million years ago, when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated and left thick layers of salt and gypsum sediments (evaporites). This was caused by the marine disconnection with the Atlantic Ocean. The crystal cave will open to visitors on 2019. The Giant Geode was discovered in December 1999 by the Mineralogist Group of Madrid, and has been under study since then. The geodes are curious formations found in the interior of rocks of different nature (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary). At first sight they look like normal rocks, however, they contain beautiful crystals, sometimes formed by gas bubbles inside a magmatic mass that, thanks to the cavity caused by the bubble and the slow process of confrontation, allow the perfect crystallization of the materials that surround it. There are geodes of all sizes and type of crystals, from small ones that fit in the palm of your hand to giants like those found in Uruguay. However, Naica or Pulpí Giant Geodes are so important because of the enormous size of their gypsum crystals, unique in the world. The Giant Geode of Pulpí, also called "the icehouse", is the second largest in the world and the only one that can be visited. The largest geode in the world is Naica (Mexico) whose crystals reach 10 meters large, but is located in a mine at 50º Celsius of temperature and with a humidity of 100%, which makes it impossible for tourists to visit it. Contrary, the Giant Pulpí Geode is at a temperature of 20º Celsius and at a more than acceptable humidity level. It is located inside an iron and lead mine 60 meters deep and its access is relatively simple through a funnel-shaped opening, with the narrowest side bent in an L-shape and dimensions of only 0.5 meters in diameter in the narrow tube that serves as an access. After this narrow passage open artificially by the discoverers, you access the heart of the Giant Geode. This forms a hollow volume of 10.7 cubic meters, with 8 meters long, 1.8 meters wide and 1.7 meters high. The size of the gypsum crystals is up to 2 meters, with a transparency that you can read a book through it. Its state of conservation makes it a “nature’s jewel ". The investment to visit the Giant Geode is almost 500,000 euros, although the objective of the works is not only that visitors can contemplate the geode, but visit a good part of the Rich Mine, which houses a rich and unique geological heritage . Throughout its more than 350 meters of galleries and three levels of exploitation, future visitors will be able to see other gypsum geodes smaller than the giant geode. THANKS TO: http://www.pulpituristico.es http://www.andalucia.org https://www.pulpi.es Virtual Visit: http://estudiofuture.com/ Music: https://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music/track/once-again
Views: 1391 Zila Channel
OG-30 | Salinity of Ocean & it's deposit |सागरीय लवणता और निक्षेप। For UPSC and state PSc
 
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Is video me hum mahasagariya jal ki salinity ke baare me padhenge . Topic Covered 1- Salinity 2- Cause of Salinity of water 3- Factors effecting Salinity of Ocean Water 4- Horizontal distribution of Salinity of Ocean 5 - Vertical distribution of Salinity of Ocean Factors Affecting Ocean Salinity The salinity of water in the surface layer of oceans depend mainly on evaporation and precipitation. Surface salinity is greatly influenced in coastal regions by the fresh water flow from rivers, and in polar regions by the processes of freezing and thawing of ice. Wind, also influences salinity of an area by transferring water to other areas. The ocean currents contribute to the salinity variations. Salinity, temperature and density of water are interrelated. Hence, any change in the temperature or density influences the salinity of an area. Horizontal distribution of salinity To make life easier, I will remove the symbol o/oo and place only number The salinity for normal open ocean ranges between 33 and 37. High salinity regions In the land locked Red Sea (don’t confuse this to Dead Sea which has much greater salinity), it is as high as 41. In hot and dry regions, where evaporation is high, the salinity sometimes reaches to 70. Comparatively Low salinity regions In the estuaries (enclosed mouth of a river where fresh and saline water get mixed) and the Arctic, the salinity fluctuates from 0 – 35, seasonally (fresh water coming from ice caps). Pacific The salinity variation in the Pacific Ocean is mainly due to its shape and larger areal extent. Atlantic The average salinity of the Atlantic Ocean is around 36-37. The equatorial region of the Atlantic Ocean has a salinity of about 35. Near the equator, there is heavy rainfall, high relative humidity, cloudiness and calm air of the doldrums. The polar areas experience very little evaporation and receive large amounts of fresh water from the melting of ice. This leads to low levels of salinity, ranging between 20 and 32. Maximum salinity (37) is observed between 20° N and 30° N and 20° W – 60° W. It gradually decreases towards the north.distribution of ocean salinity Indian Ocean The average salinity of the Indian Ocean is 35. The low salinity trend is observed in the Bay of Bengal due to influx of river water by the river Ganga. On the contrary, the Arabian Sea shows higher salinity due to high evaporation and low influx of fresh water. Marginal seas The North Sea, in spite of its location in higher latitudes, records higher salinity due to more saline water brought by the North Atlantic Drift. Baltic Sea records low salinity due to influx of river waters in large quantity. The Mediterranean Sea records higher salinity due to high evaporation. Salinity is, however, very low in Black Sea due to enormous fresh water influx by rivers. Inland seas and lakes The salinity of the inland Seas and lakes is very high because of the regular supply of salt by ‘ the rivers falling into them. Their water becomes progressively more saline due to evaporation. For instance, the salinity of the Great Salt Lake , (Utah, USA), the Dead Sea and the Lake Van in Turkey is 220, 240 and 330 respectively. The oceans and salt lakes are becoming more salty as time goes on because the rivers dump more salt into them, while fresh water is lost due to evaporation. Cold and warm water mixing zones Salinity decreases from 35 – 31 on the western parts of the northern hemisphere because of the influx of melted water from the Arctic region. surface salinity of world's oceans Sub-Surface Salinity With depth, the salinity also varies, but this variation again is subject to latitudinal difference. The decrease is also influenced by cold and warm currents. In high latitudes, salinity increases with depth. In the middle latitudes, it increases up to 35 metres and then it decreases. At the equator, surface salinity is lower. Vertical Distribution of Salinity Salinity changes with depth, but the way it changes depends upon the location of the sea. Salinity at the surface increases by the loss of water to ice or evaporation, or decreased by the input of fresh waters, such as from the rivers. Salinity at depth is very much fixed, because there is no way that water is ‘lost’, or the salt is ‘added.’ There is a marked difference in the salinity between the surface zones and the deep zones of the oceans. The lower salinity water rests above the higher salinity dense water. Salinity, generally, increases with depth and there is a distinct zone called the halocline (compare this with thermocline), where salinity increases sharply. Other factors being constant, increasing salinity of seawater causes its density to increase. High salinity seawater, generally, sinks below the lower salinity water. This leads to stratification by salinity.
Views: 10333 KV GuruJi
Sea Surface Salinity - NOAA Science On a Sphere
 
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[video: NOAA ] It's World Water Day! Did you know that 96.5% of the world's water is in the salty ocean, leaving only a small remaining amount that is fresh? This dataset shows the salinity (concentration of salt) differences throughout the ocean. These variations in salinity have large-scale effects on Earth's water cycle and ocean circulation. Read more here: https://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/sea-surface-salinity/
Views: 118 MDx media
Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST)
 
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science & software: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.08.011 data: NASA Giovanni soundtrack: Дидюля - "Время людей"
Gourmet Salt: Mediterranean Flake Sea Salt
 
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Mediterranean flake sea salts are known for their light salty flavor and delicate texture. Cyprus Flake is a gourmet salt with a beautiful pyramid structure that makes it a natural choice as a finishing salt adding flair to almost any dish presented at the table. It also shines on desserts and confections where it’s light, even salinity adds just the right amount of salty crunch to rich, buttery sweets. Don’t be fooled into thinking beauty is its only gift because Cyprus Flake has hidden depths when crumbled and added to soups, stews, pasta and vegetables. It brings out bright taste and subtly enhances natural flavors. https://www.seasalt.com Shop Cyprus Flake https://www.seasalt.com/cyprus-flake-sea-salt.html#183=757 Recipes using Cyprus Flake: Salted Caramel Apple Galette https://www.seasalt.com/recipes/salted-caramel-apple-galette-cyprus-flake-sea-salt-recipe.html Roasted figs with Cyprus Black https://www.seasalt.com/recipes/roasted-figs-honey-thyme-cyprus-black-lava-salt-recipe.html ******************************************** Subscribe to our YouTube Channel today! Connect with us on Social Media. Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/saltworks_inc/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SaltWorksSeaSalt/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/SaltWorksInc Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/saltworksinc/ Linked In: https://www.linkedin.com/company/saltworks-inc- ******************************************** Cyprus Flake is one of our most beautiful sea salts. Contained in its delicate pyramid structure is a wealth of bright, fresh ocean flavor. Harvested from the waters off Cyprus, it has the mild flavor of Mediterranean Sea salts and is ideal as a finishing salt. Don’t be afraid to crumble it and add it to soups and stews, it melts quickly and imparts a light, even salinity. Cyprus Flake truly shines as a garnish to almost any dish and on desserts and confections where it’s beauty can be seen and tasted.
Views: 703 SaltWorks, Inc.
wmed2052_salinity_0m_2001_2004.avi
 
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Coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model for the Western Mediterranean Sea wmed2052. Simulated salinity for the period January 2001-December 2004. By Raffaele Bernardello ([email protected]).
Views: 88 3377raffa
Boat Riding Next to 2 Bodies of Water That Don't Mix As Stated In Quran
 
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Boat Riding Next to 2 Bodies of Water That Don't Mix As Stated In Quran Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density.1 For example, Mediterranean sea water is warm, saline, and less dense, compared to Atlantic ocean water. When Mediterranean sea water enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill, it moves several hundred kilometers into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 meters with its own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics. The Mediterranean water stabilizes at this depth2 (see figure 13). Figure 13 (Click here to enlarge) Figure 13: The Mediterranean sea water as it enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill with its own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics, because of the barrier that distinguishes between them. Temperatures are in degrees Celsius (C°). (Marine Geology, Kuenen, p. 43, with a slight enhancement.) (Click on the image to enlarge it.) Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier. The Holy Quran mentioned that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. God has said: He has set free the two seas meeting together. There is a barrier between them. They do not transgress. (Quran, 55:19-20) But when the Quran speaks about the divider between fresh and salt water, it mentions the existence of “a forbidding partition” with the barrier. God has said in the Quran: He is the one who has set free the two kinds of water, one sweet and palatable, and the other salty and bitter. And He has made between them a barrier and a forbidding partition. (Quran, 25:53) One may ask, why did the Quran mention the partition when speaking about the divider between fresh and salt water, but did not mention it when speaking about the divider between the two seas? Modern science has discovered that in estuaries, where fresh (sweet) and salt water meet, the situation is somewhat different from what is found in places where two seas meet. It has been discovered that what distinguishes fresh water from salt water in estuaries is a “pycnocline zone with a marked density discontinuity separating the two layers.”3 This partition (zone of separation) has a different salinity from the fresh water and from the salt water4 (see figure 14). Figure 14 (Click here to enlarge) Figure 14: Longitudinal section showing salinity (parts per thousand ‰) in an estuary. We can see here the partition (zone of separation) between the fresh and the salt water. (Introductory Oceanography, Thurman, p. 301, with a slight enhancement.) (Click on the image to enlarge it.) This information has been discovered only recently, using advanced equipment to measure temperature, salinity, density, oxygen dissolubility, etc. The human eye cannot see the difference between the two seas that meet, rather the two seas appear to us as one homogeneous sea. Likewise, the human eye cannot see the division of water in estuaries into the three kinds: fresh water, salt water, and the partition (zone of separation). https://www.islam-guide.com/ch1-1-e.htm
Views: 29764 DailyIslamicReminder
The Scientific Miracles of the Qur'an (The Quran on Seas and Rivers)
 
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There is a strange science involved in the mixing of waters. The phenomenon is different when two seas meet and different when fresh and salty water meet, and Quran has explained it all in clear details. Amazingly, after about 1400 years, the modern science has come up with all theories which certify the correctness of Quranic verses. Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density. [Principles of Oceanography - Davis, pp. 92-93] For example, Mediterranean Sea water is warm, saline and less dense, compared to Atlantic Ocean water. When Mediterranean Sea water enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill, it moves several hundred kilometers into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1,000 meters with its own warm, saline and less dense characteristics. The Mediterranean water stabilizes at this depth. [Principles of Oceanography p. 93] The Mediterranean Sea water as it enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill with its own warm, saline and less dense characteristics, because of the barrier that distinguishes between them. Temperatures are in degrees Celsius (C). Even in depths (indicated here by darker colors) up to 1,400 meters and at distances ranging from a minus -100 to +2,500 meters, we find that both bodies of water maintain their individual temperatures and salinity. Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier. The Holy Quran mentioned that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. God said: He has granted freedom to the two great seas to meet [Noble Quran 55:19] Yet there is a barrier in between which they cannot delete [Noble Quran 55:20]
Views: 2502 islampeacelife
Messinian salinity crisis
 
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Video Software we use: https://amzn.to/2KpdCQF Ad-free videos. You can support us by purchasing something through our Amazon-Url, thanks :) The Messinian Salinity Crisis , also referred to as the Messinian Event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, was a geological event during which the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of partly or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian age of the Miocene epoch, from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma .It ended with the Zanclean flood, when the Atlantic reclaimed the basin.Sediment samples from below the deep seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea, which include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants, show that, about 5.96 million years ago in the late Miocene period, the precursor of the Strait of Gibraltar closed tight and the Mediterranean Sea, for the first time and then repeatedly, partially desiccated.The strait closed 5.6 Ma for the last time and, because of the generally dry climate conditions, within a millennium the Mediterranean basin nearly completely dried out, evaporating into a deep dry basin bottoming at some places 3 to 5 km below the world ocean level, with a few hypersaline Dead Sea-like pockets. ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- About the author(s): Verisimilus License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0) Author(s): Verisimilus (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Verisimilus) ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited vision. Article available under a Creative Commons license Image source in video
Views: 647 WikiWikiup
Ocean Water (Part 2): Dissolved Solids & Salinity
 
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Mr. Lima discusses the abundant and trace elements dissolved in the ocean water, as welll as their origin. He also talks about salinity variations and factors.
Views: 6856 scienceclassisgreat
Origin of the Mediterranean Sea : Neptunes Lagoon -TimeLine and Its changes 2018
 
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this vid shows the Formation of the Mediterranian Sea, and its place in Antiquity....
Views: 296 Neptunes Lagoon
Sea water temperature - Mediterranean sea - time lapse 2016
 
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Time lapse sea surface temperature Mediterranean Sea - 2016. www.seawatertemperatures.com
Crossing Gibraltar Strait
 
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Hourly Sea Surface Temperature between June 23 and July 6, centred on the Alboran Sea. Cold threads of currents from an upwelling just at the Gibraltar Strait enter the Mediterranean and then are taken in the Western Alboran gyre in a spiral move. Changes between night and day (days being warmer than nights) are also clearly. On the Atlantic side, Cold waters upwellings can be seen on the Coast of Portugal, and South of Morroco. Gibraltar Strait is of major importance, oceanographically, strategically... There colder Atlantic Ocean waters enter the warmer Mediterranean Sea. Sea Surface Temperature shows all the wealth of marine features that can be seen in this area. The "entry" to the Mediterranean is the Gibraltar Strait. There, cold water Atlantic waters enter the warmer Mediterranean Sea. Depending on the season, in the Alboran Sea just East of Gibraltar, one or two gyre(s) (semi-permanent eddies) can be seen; in Summer, a warm (anticyclonic) one at the very beginning of the Alboran Sea, and another one just after, also anticyclonic but slightly less warm. Further East, there is a zone of intense activity along the Algerian coast. Eddies and meanders in the Algerian Current are among the most turbulent features of the Mediterranean-but some are more stable. The Sea Surface Temperature is one of the important physical quantities proposed by MyOcean, from observations as well as from models. It is sensitive to the difference between night and day (the Sun warming the upper layer of the ocean). With an hourly frequency, the pulse of those daily variations can be seen. The Sea Surface Temperature is of foremost use in meteorology and climate forecasts (e.g. the Mediterranean Coast of France know every beginning of Autumn heavy rainfalls linked to the Sea temperature; seasonal forecasts won't be possible without ocean temperature...). Life in the water is also driven by temperature, with phytoplankton more abundant where the temperature is low, etc. Credits : CNES - Mercator Océan - MyOcean Data: Mercator Ocean Realisation : Mira Production
Views: 4184 MERCATOROCEAN
MIRECALE OF QURAN
 
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Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet up, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density. For example, Mediterranean Sea water is warm, saline and less dense, compared to Atlantic Ocean water. When Mediterranean Sea water enters the Atlantic, it moves several hundred kilometers into the Atlantic at a depth of about one kilometer with its own warm, saline and less dense characteristics, because of the barrier that distinguishes between them. Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier. The Quran preceded the modern science and said that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. ---- The Meeting of Two Seas in the Bible: The Meeting of Two Seas or even the meeting of two rivers is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It is only mentioned once in the New Testament. Where two seas met, they ran the ship aground; and the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmovable, but the hinder part was broken with the violence of the waves. Acts 27:38-41 38 And when they had eaten enough, they lightened the ship, and cast out the wheat into the sea. 39 And when it was day, they knew not the land: but they discovered a certain creek with a shore, into the which they were minded, if it were possible, to thrust in the ship. 40 And when they had taken up the anchors, they committed themselves unto the sea, and loosed the rudder bands, and hoised up the mainsail to the wind, and made toward shore. 41 And falling into a place where two seas met, they ran the ship aground; and the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmovable, but the hinder part was broken with the violence of the waves. ------ The Meeting of Two Seas in the Quran: The Barrier between the Fresh and salt Waters when they meet The Quran talks about the divider between fresh and salt water, it mentions the existence of "a forbidding partition" with the barrier. In addition, the Quran says that there are two types of Pearls, the Freshwater and Saltwater Pearls Surah 25:53 It was he who let forth the two seas, this one is palatably sweet and this salt, a bitter taste, and he set a barrier between them, and a refuge which is forbidden. Surah 55:19- 28 [19] He has let free the two bodies of flowing water (salt and fresh), meeting together: [20] Between them is a barrier which they do not transgress: [21] Then which of the favors of your lord will ye deny? [22] Out of them come pearls and coral: [23] Then which of the favors of your lord will ye deny? [24] Also, his are the ships displayed upon the sea, like banners. [25] Then which of the favors of your lord will ye deny? [26] All that live on it will perish. [27] And there will endure for ever the person of your lord, the lord of glory and honor [28] Then which of the favors of your lord will ye deny? In addition, the Quran mentioned that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. The Quran uses the scientific information in order that you might answer this important theological question: Is there a god with Allah? Surah 27:60- 61 [60] nay, he who created the heavens and the earth, and sent water from the sky for you and caused gardens to grow full of beauty of which its tree you could never grow, is there a god with Allah? no, but they are a nation who set up equals with him! [61] Or, who made the earth a resting place, and made in it rivers, and raised on it mountains and placed between the two seas a barrier. is there a god with Allah? Nay! Most of them do not know!
Views: 16286 daaccountant