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Montreal-style smoked meat, Montreal smoked meat or simply smoked meat in Montreal (French: smoked meat; sometimes viande fumée), is a type of kosher-style deli meat product made by salting and curing beef brisket with spices. The brisket is allowed to absorb the flavours over a week, and is then hot smoked to cook through, and finally steamed to completion.
The origins of Montreal smoked meat are uncertain and likely unresolvable. Many have laid claims to the creation or introduction of smoked meat into Montreal. Regardless, all of these stories indicate the creators are of the Jewish Diaspora from Romania or Eastern Europe:
Some point to Benjamin Kravitz, who founded Bens De Luxe Delicatessen & Restaurant in 1910, as the introducer of Montreal smoked meat. According to the Kravitz family, he used a brisket-curing method he recalled being practiced by Lithuanian farmers. His first smoked meat sandwiches were made and sold from his wife's fruit and candy store.
According to Eiran Harris, a Montreal historian, Herman Rees Roth from New York may have created the first smoked meat sandwich in 1908, selling them from his deli, the British American Delicatessen Store.
In another claim by Bill Brownstein, the smoked meat was brought over in 1902 by Itzak Rudman, who was an accomplished salami and smoked meat maker who had a shop on de Bullion Street (formerly Cadieux Street).
In yet another possibility, a butcher by the name of Aaron Sanft who arrived from Iași, Romania in 1884 founded Montreal's first kosher butchershop and likely made smoked meat in the Romanian style similar to pastrama.
Smoked meat sandwich, served with coleslaw, french fries and one quarter of a pickle
Warm Montreal smoked meat is always sliced by hand to maintain its form, since doing so with a meat slicer would cause the tender meat to disintegrate. Whole briskets are kept steaming and sliced up on demand when ordered in the restaurant to maintain its temperature.
Even when hand-cut, Montreal smoked meat produces a lot of broken bits when sliced. These pieces are gathered together and commonly served with French fries, cheese curds, and gravy as smoked meat poutine or served over spaghetti with bolognese sauce or even pizza.
Montreal-style smoked meat sandwiches are built with seedless rye bread and piled with hand-sliced smoked meat about 5 cm (2 in) high with yellow prepared mustard. The customer can specify the amount of fat in the smoked meat:
Lean: the lean and less flavourful end. Relatively healthful but dry.
Medium and medium fat: the most popular cuts from the middle of the brisket. Occasionally, a sliced mix of lean and fat meats.
Old-fashioned: a cut between medium and fatty and often cut a bit thicker.
Fat: from the fat end of the brisket
Speck: consists solely of the spiced subcutaneous fat from the whole brisket without meat.
Along with bagels, smoked meat has been popular in Montreal since the 19th century and it has taken such strong root in the city that both Montrealers and non-Montrealers alike identify it as emblematic of the city's cuisine. Schwartz's, one of the most popular Montreal delis, is considered a melting pot for Montreal where all cultures converge and people of disparate classes share tables when eating. Current and former residents and tourists make a point of visiting Montreal's best-known smoked meat establishments, even taking whole briskets away as take-out. So loved is smoked meat by native Montrealers that renowned Montreal writer Mordecai Richler sardonically described its flavour from Schwartz's in his novel Barney's Version, as a "maddening aphrodisiac" to be bottled and copyrighted as "Nectar of Judea".
Internationally, on Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day, Quebec expatriates and lovers of Quebec cuisine sometimes enjoy Montreal smoked meat sandwiches, along with steamed hot dogs (referred to by the locals as "steamies"), classic poutine, Quebec microbrewery beer, and artisanal Quebec chocolate as cultural markers.
Despite the food's origins in, and association with, Montreal's Jewish community, and contrary to what is sometimes asserted, these delis are not certified as kosher.